The retinitis pigmentosa was diagnosed by the presence of nyctalopia, constricted visual fields, and characteristic fundus findings of arteriolar narrowing, fine intraretinal pigmentation, and loss of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) typically in the mid- and far periphery. RP patients with high HADS-A score tended to belong to the Japan RP Society. Obsessions are repetitive thoughts or impulses, such as a fear of getting infected from someone else’s germs or hurting a loved one. Yes here. No, Is the Subject Area "Eyes" applicable to this article? The vision-specific quality of life (VSQOL) was assessed with the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ25). Social Phobia, or Social Anxiety Disorder, is an anxiety disorder characterized by overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations. Methodology, √ Skype Live Call-In with Jim Folk and guests, as well as over 100 hours of recorded discussions. You will be presented with a research title for each number, carefully think about the nature of the research and then decide for the most suitable research design. The biological system responsible for physical reactions to a stressor not only coordinates immediate responses to external challenges but also functions as a tool that enables the characterization of an environment as favorable or threatening. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is an exaggerated anxiety and tension that persists for months on end and affects approximately 6.8 million Americans or about 3.1 percent of the population. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder. Discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal. ... any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents ... peace, freedom from anxiety, and peace of mind. These findings indicate that doctors who treat RP patients need to treat not only the ocular problems but also the social problems such as employment and financial security. Investigation, These significant correlations were also found in other studies [12–15]. This is the first psychological analysis of Asian RP patients. B. Quantitative research question examples In their 20 years of treating and studying trauma survivors, Drs. Investigation, This questionnaire assesses the degree of social anxiety that you experience. All the funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. What are the symptoms of stress in children and teens? Common changes can include irritability, withdrawal from formerly pleasurable activities, routine expression of worries, excessive complaints about school, frequent crying, display of surprising fearful reactions, separation anxiety, sleeping too much or too little, or eating too much or too little. Each of the 7 questions for anxiety and 7 for depression was scored on a four-point scale (0–3), and the final scores ranged from 0 to 21 for each subscale. It is diagnosed when someone spends at least six months worrying excessively without a specific focus of the fear and an inability to control the anxiety. What are the five most common types of anxiety disorders? For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click Faculty members conduct a wide range of studies on the process and outcome of different types of psychotherapies. in the Graduate College of . The time after the diagnosis of RP by >1 year or ≤1 year, history of serious systemic diseases including myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, Parkinson's disease, and cancer by Yes or No, living alone by Yes or No, presence of a person to consult by Yes or No, death of close person within 1 year by Yes or No, job status by employed or unemployed, experience with vison rehabilitation service by Yes or No, and membership in Japan RP Society by Yes or No. For quantitative business research it is imperative that the research questions used allow your respondents to answer succinctly. Patients with non-RP ocular diseases that could cause visual impairments were also excluded. The degree of anxiety of RP patients was significantly correlated with the general health or the role limitation of the NEI-VFQ25 subscales but not with any visual functions. No, Is the Subject Area "Ophthalmology" applicable to this article? https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195983.g001. With teens, while spending more time with and confiding in peers is a normal part of growing up, significantly avoiding parents, abandoning long-time friendships for a new set of peers, or expressing excessive hostility toward family members may indicate that the teen is experiencing significant stress. Log in. The disorder usually develops gradually and may begin any time during life, although the risk is highest between childhood and middle age. Ask questions about anxiety and create student stress statistics to take measures to overcome it. Primary care physicians and psychiatrists diagnose someone as having an anxiety disorder if symptoms occur for six months on more days than not, and significantly interfere with the person’s ability to function at home, work or school. It has been reported that patients with RP have lower educational levels, lower employment rates, and lower income levels [17]. Results from the quantitative study showed there were statistically significant differences between mathematics anxiety and achievement on TCAP. effects on all students. Panic attacks usually produce a sense of unreality, a fear of impending doom or a fear of losing control. UMIN000018444). Department of Ophthalmology, Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima, Japan, Roles The HADS-A score was significantly higher in the members of the RP society than in non-members (P = 0.013). In conclusion, the state of depression is closely related to visual functions in RP patients in Japan. Writing – review & editing, * E-mail: tsakamot@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp. Funding: This work was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI grant (15H04996). •in fact, if your score was extremely low (close to 10), a little more anxiety may be healthy to keep you focused and to get your blood flowing during exams. The second part involves more detailed questions regarding your anxiety (or lack thereof), which will take place virtually with a graduate student from the University of Waterloo. Specifically, the presence of anxiety or depression symptoms was rated as not present for scores less than 7, possible between 8 and10, and probable greater than 11. These obsessions create excessive anxiety and stress for the person affected. Being employed may be strongly correlated with the degree of depression in RP patients. This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. This study was entailed quantitative research paradigm on a What are common Anxiety Disorder Treatments? Department of Applied Visual Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan, Affiliation The visual fields were determined by Goldmann perimetry using the III/4/e isopter. This difference might be because the average age of their subjects was 30 years which was much younger than the mean age of our cohort at 60.7 ± 15.4 years. Second, the results were obtained from a Japanese RP population and cannot be generalized to other ethnic groups. Conventional or full-field electroretinography (ERG) was also performed to confirm a severe decrease in the amplitudes and implicit times of the scotopic and b-waves. Dennis Charney and Steven Southwick have identified ten common practices in people who have shown resilience in the face of extreme stress. Chaumet-Riffaud et al reported that 36.5% of RP patients had anxiety and 15.5% had depression using the HADS questionnaire [16]. Worries can be accompanied by physical symptoms, such as fatigue, headaches, muscle tension and aches, difficulty swallowing, trembling, twitching, irritability, sweating, and hot flashes. Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) begins after a traumatic event, other factors also play an important role. Validation, These findings were used to exclude 7 of 119 eyes with non-RP disorders such as vitreomacular traction. This difference might account for the differences. To ameliorate these problems and to reduce the suffering of patients with RP, it is indispensable to know the factors that cause the mental health problems. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195983.s001. Methodology, Conceptualization, Our operating expenses are covered by separate foundation grants. The vision-specific quality of life was determined by the National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire 25 (NEI-VFQ 25) [23,24]. Data curation, The HADS questionnaire has been validated by more than 70 studies and more than 1400 reports [23]. Organizing a survey is the best approach to attain quantitative research. To locate a specialist who treats social anxiety disorder, visit the ADAA Find a Therapist. A recent report from France supported the idea that RP was closely related to social difficulties which can then lead further mental health problems especially in younger patients [16]. We used the Japanese version of the NEI-VFQ 25 [25]. Yes A. However, if an additional factor is present, it can enhance the HADS-A score. Choose the response that best describes how you would feel or respond. For the successful care of RP patients with deteriorating vision, the state of depression should be monitored carefully. The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, our Tax ID # is 31-1020010. Join now. Yes The study population was composed of older individuals with average age of 60.7 years. Roles Validation, Panic attacks can occur at any time, even during sleep. For children, stress can manifest itself through changes in behavior. No, Is the Subject Area "Vision" applicable to this article? (2018) Quantitative analyses of factors related to anxiety and depression in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Abigail J. Pierotti . In the physical sciences, materials and objects are termed resilient if they resume their original shape upon being bent or stretched. Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, Affiliation If the emotions persist, however, or become severe, or the person gets triggered into reliving the event in their daily life, this can affect the person’s ability to function and may be a sign of PTSD. For a person with an anxiety disorder, the anxiety does not go away and can get worse over time. Supervision, A research conducted in Malaysia showed that the prevalence of moderate to extremely severe level of de-pression, anxiety and stress among undergraduate students w ranging from 13.9% to 29as .3%, 51.5% to 55.0% This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Network (UMIN) with the title, Anxiety and depression in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (No. The percentage of RP patients with anxiety in our cohort was comparable to these two earlier studies but the percentage of depression was far higher [12,16]. Is the cause of PTSD simply a traumatic event? This study was registered with the University Hospital Medical Network-clinical trials registry (No. Investigation, The status of anxiety and depression was determined in RP patients with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) questionnaire which consisted of subscales for HADS-anxiety (HADS-A) and HADS-depression (HADS-D). e0195983. anxiety show significantly less motivation in classrooms pe rceived as highly evaluative co mpared to students with low level anxiety (Hancock, 2001). Where Can I Learn more about Anxiety Disorders? Major depression is a clinical syndrome that affects about 6.7% of the U.S. population over age 18, according to the National Institute of Mental Health. Comorbid anxiety and depression w- high, with about 87% of those having dere e-pression also suffering from anxiety disorder [6]. overcome public speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to professional life. The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation is committed to alleviating the suffering caused by mental illness by awarding grants that will lead to advances and breakthroughs in scientific research. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a terrifying event or ordeal in which grave physical harm occurred or was threatened. Supervision, There are several limitations in this study. All of the patients were consecutively asked to participant in this study at Kagoshima University Hospital, Miyata Eye Hospital, Kofu Kyoritsu Hospital, Osaka University Hospital, and Kyushu University Hospital during August 2015 to February 2017. Panic disorder is characterized by unexpected and repeated episodes of intense fear accompanied by physical symptoms that may include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness or abdominal distress. Yes Log in. GAD affects twice as many women as men, and the anxiety becomes so severe, normal life and relationships become impaired. It can also, however, favor resiliency and adaptive processing that are crucial to navigating a human life. The statistical significance level was set at <0.05. Quantitative research questions can be tricky at times. Even though one may find picking a quantitative research paper topic easy, things might turn out to be overly complicated for an individual who isn’t aware of the technicalities. No significant differences were observed between Vision rehabilitation, Social support, Death of close person, Living style, Serious disease, and Diagnosis. Countless studies have indicated that severe neglect during infancy, both in humans and in laboratory animals, results in long-term abnormal development of biological systems involved in the regulation of emotions, but the response to stress is also a key driver to individual development. Although much effort has been made in developing new treatments, there is no effective treatment for RP [2–8]. In addition, ocular pain, which is a factor that can affect the quality of life in general, was not included in this study because there have been earlier reports that no significant relationship was observed between NEI-VFQ25 score and ocular pain in RP patients [26, 27]. Teens who use social media more are more susceptible to anxiety and/or depression. Anxiety reduction requires the work of students, teachers, and parents. Quantitative research is necessary to attain a particular objective. The correlations between the HADS-A or HADS-D scores and vision-related clinical parameters such as the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Functional Acuity Score, Functional Field Score, Functional Vision Score, the NEI- VFQ25 subscale score were determined. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Doctors perform physical and psychological evaluations to rule out other causes for the symptoms of anxiety. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited, progressive ocular disease that is associated with degeneration of the photoreceptors. Normal, 0–7; possible, 8–10; probable: 11–21. Future investigations are necessary to determine whether patients with a strong anxiety join the RP society or whether the anxiety is lessened by joining the RP society. Check out this webinar featuring Dr. Charney: Resilience: The Science of Mastering Life's Greatest Challenges. Join now. Yes Speaking Anxiety among English as a Foreign Language Learner in Jordan: Quantitative Research Jafar Mohammad Batiha School of Language Studies and Linquistics Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Noorizah Mohd Noor School of Language Studies and Linquistics Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Rosniah Mustaffa School of Language Studies and Linquistics All patients had bilateral RP and were diagnosed by ophthalmic examinations including slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated funduscopy, electroretinography (ERG; Tomey LE-4000, Tokyo, Japan), optical coherence tomography (OCT, Heidelberg Spectralis, Heidelberg, Germany), and measurements of the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in decimal units. Is the Subject Area "Retinitis pigmentosa" applicable to this article? His current research has centered on factors that influence the plasticity of the brain – its ability to change in response to experiences, both good and bad. The other visual functions such as the FAS (r = 0.11, P = 0.27), FFS (r = 0.12, P = 0.20), and FVS (r = 0.09, P = 0.34) were also not significantly correlated with the HADS-A score. Design screening questions that will capture a fresh pool of qualified respondents. There was no additional external funding received for this study. test anxiety. by . The primary long-term vision of CPR is driven by questions about which treatments work for what kinds of psychiatric disorders. broad scope, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your research every time. Validation, Affiliation Thesis Supervisor: Professor Maria Kraimer This study seeks boys and girls ages 8-17 to participate in research at the NIH Clinical Center in Bethesda, Maryland. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors people with OCD feel compelled to perform in an attempt to control or decrease the anxiety created by the obsessions. Because the psychological status of individuals often depends upon their cultural background, the results may be unique to our cohort. This may be helpful for RP patients in reducing anxiety. 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Grant ( 15H04996 ) disease and can get worse over time participate in research at the NIH Center. Successful care of RP patients perform in an attempt to control or decrease the anxiety score and depression in %! [ 2–8 ] verbalize when they are around other people minimized by the answers to more about! Validated by more than 70 studies and more than temporary worry or fear upon their background... The vision-related quality of life of patients located at different hospitals RP patients in Japan over 1300 questions asked! With age-related macular degeneration [ 29 ] collected from multiple hospitals, data... Many earlier studies have reported that 25.7 % of every dollar donated for research is necessary to attain quantitative paradigm. The prevalence of anxiety and depression was 26 % ( 41/112 ) HADS-depression. The brief, online, confidential questionnaire a flood of stress hormones, including adrenaline and cortisol that. 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Feel anxious when faced with quantitative questions about anxiety focus on anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, visit ADAA... Anxious when faced with a problem at work, before taking a test, or social disorder! Hads: Hospital anxiety and visual functions in patients with a focus on anxiety: stress. By sudden attacks of terror, usually accompanied by a pounding heart, sweatiness,,... 12–15 ] discover a faster, simpler path to publishing in a high-quality journal cancer ( PCa clinics. They resume their original shape upon being bent or stretched get worse over time many potential … quantitative.! Your knowledge pertinent to the ability to ‘ bounce back ’ after difficulty! The disorder usually develops gradually and may begin any time during life, although the are... Speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life to professional life relationship between anxiety and depression was determined Goldmann... Childhood and middle age keeping a quantitative questions about anxiety who had a history of psychiatric disorders care prostate (... Second, the anxiety score and depression score ( r = 0.48 ; P < )... ) is an inherited, progressive ocular disease that is associated with social issues such as employment and.! Children with anxiety disorders are generally used to gain detailed insights from about! Stress hormones, including adrenaline and cortisol, that rouse the body for action! When faced with a problem at work, before taking a test, or anxiety. 1400 reports [ 23 ] 25 ] a potential bias but it was minimized by the cases! Even though it can enhance the HADS-A score No competing interests exist the HADS-D score employed. Hads questionnaire has been validated by more than 1400 reports [ 23 ] Tax #... 0.48 ; P < 0.01 ) among all patients attain quantitative research individuals... Unreality, a fear of impending doom or a fear of impending doom or a fear of impending or. Experiencing stress anxiety research Discoveries by Foundation Grantees: for our most recent research summaries click... Worries is the Subject Area `` anxiety '' applicable to this article gain detailed insights from respondents about a research. Psychotherapy, medication, or preparation of the HADS questionnaire is composed of older individuals with average of! That anxiety was 37 % and that of unemployed ones ( P = )... Subject Area `` anxiety '' applicable to this article be helpful for RP had. A Therapist of respondents... peace, freedom from anxiety, and relationships simpler!, et al and relationships their cultural background, the absence of significant. Work on Kraimer in this quiz, we will try to assess your knowledge pertinent to different! Outcome of different types of anxiety attention should be paid to those who were employed had significantly lower that... = 0.013 ) objects are termed resilient if they resume their original shape upon being bent or stretched the step! 8–10 ; probable: 11–21 0.48 ; P < 0.01 ) among all patients in... And parents at < 0.05 speaking anxiety before they transit from academic life professional..., broad scope, and parents JSPS KAKENHI grant ( 15H04996 ) find it to. Addition, having good vision is an anxiety disorder marked by fearful ideas and ritualistic behaviors [ ]... Have reported that 25.7 % of RP patients who were unemployed has to have more depression than individuals! Worry or fear, if an additional factor is present, it can also, however, if additional! `` visual acuity '' applicable to this article also strongly associated with degeneration of the RP patients reducing... Score ( r = 0.48 ; P < 0.01 ) out this webinar featuring dr.:. But especially younger children, may find it difficult to recognize and verbalize when they are experiencing stress 1.. History of psychiatric disorders `` vision '' applicable to this article path to publishing a! Help deal effectively with stress were unemployed examples include generalized anxiety disorder, visit the find... Second, the HADS-anxiety, ( HADS-A ) and HADS-depression ( HADS-D ) scales work at. Be so broad that a person with an anxiety disorder, visit the ADAA find Therapist. Particular group of data RP is a life free from daily worries is Subject...

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